International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
GROUP C1/5 RESISTANT JUNGLERICE
(Echinochloa colona)


Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)

Iran, Khuzestan
INTRODUCTION JUNGLERICE
Junglerice (Echinochloa colona) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In Iran this weed first evolved resistance to Group C1/5 herbicides in 2009 and infests Sugarcane for sugar.   Group C1/5 herbicides are known as Photosystem II inhibitors (Inhibition of photosynthesis at photosystem II).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to ametryn, atrazine, and metribuzin and they may be cross-resistant to other Group C1/5 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Feb 24, 2015 )

Common NameJunglerice
SpeciesEchinochloa colona
GroupPhotosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
Herbicidesametryn, atrazine, and metribuzin
LocationIran, Khuzestan
Year2009
Situation(s)Sugarcane for sugar
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Elham Elahifard, and Eskandar Zand 
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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Field, and Greenhouse trials comparing a known susceptible Junglerice biotype with this Junglerice biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group C1/5 resistant Junglerice have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
 
Relative Fitness

Triazine resistant weeds often exhibit a lower relative fitness when compared to susceptible biotypes.  The most common mutation conferring triazine resistance (Ser 264 to Gly mutation of the psbA gene) also causes a reduction in CO2 fixation, quantum yield, and seed and biomass production.  There is no record in this database referring specifically to fitness studies on Group C1/5 resistant Junglerice from Iran.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

ELHAM ELAHIFARD
ََAssistant Professor
Khouzestan Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University
Depart. of Agronomy and Breeding Plants
College of Agriculture
Khouzestan Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University, Molla Sani, Iran, P. O. Box: 6341773637.
Molla Sani, 6341773637, Khouzestan
Iran
Email Elham Elahifard
ESKANDAR ZAND
Weed Researcher
Plant Peast & Deisease Research Institute
Weed Research Department
Plant Pest And Disease Research In
105 Kirkwood Dr
Tehran, 19395, Khouzestan
Iran
Email Eskandar Zand

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Iran have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Elham Elahifard, and Eskandar Zand for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Junglerice Globally
(Echinochloa colona)
Herbicide Resistant Junglerice Globally
(Echinochloa colona)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Junglerice Globally
(Echinochloa colona)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 ArgentinaArgentina 2009 Corn (maize), and Soybean glyphosate 48 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
78Echinochloa colonaJunglerice5544
2 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2004 Sorghum atrazine 1 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
78Echinochloa colonaJunglerice5336
3 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2007 Fallow glyphosate 1 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
78Echinochloa colonaJunglerice5297
4 Australia (Queensland) AustraliaQueensland2009 Fallow glyphosate 1 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
78Echinochloa colonaJunglerice5514
5 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia2010 Cotton, Rice, and Watermelon glyphosate 1 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
78Echinochloa colonaJunglerice5581
6 BoliviaBolivia 2006 Rice, and Soybean cyhalofop-butyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, and haloxyfop-P-methyl 4 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
78Echinochloa colonaJunglerice5413
7 BoliviaBolivia 2006 Rice bispyribac-sodium 4 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
78Echinochloa colonaJunglerice5414
8 ColombiaColombia 1988 Rice propanil 10 PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
78Echinochloa colonaJunglerice71
9 ColombiaColombia 2000 Rice quinclorac 10 Synthetic Auxins (O/4)
78Echinochloa colonaJunglerice5141
10 ColombiaColombia 2016 Rice bispyribac-sodium, cyhalofop-butyl, and quinclorac (MOA in monocots) 10 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Cellulose inhibitors (L/26)
78Echinochloa colonaJunglerice18163
11 Costa RicaCosta Rica 1987 Rice propanil 11 PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
78Echinochloa colonaJunglerice72
12 Costa RicaCosta Rica 1994 Rice fenoxaprop-P-ethyl 11 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
78Echinochloa colonaJunglerice75
13 Costa RicaCosta Rica 1998 Rice azimsulfuron, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, and propanil 11 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
78Echinochloa colonaJunglerice5147
14 Costa RicaCosta Rica 2013 Rice bispyribac-sodium, cyhalofop-butyl, imazapic, and imazapyr 11 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
78Echinochloa colonaJunglerice7886
15 EgyptEgypt 2012 Rice bispyribac-sodium 15 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
78Echinochloa colonaJunglerice7896
16 El SalvadorEl Salvador 1999 Rice propanil 83 PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
78Echinochloa colonaJunglerice5150
17 GuatemalaGuatemala 1999 Rice propanil 84 PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
78Echinochloa colonaJunglerice5152
18 HondurasHonduras 1999 Rice propanil 85 PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
78Echinochloa colonaJunglerice5151
19 IranIran 2009 Sugarcane for sugar ametryn, atrazine, and metribuzin 79 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
78Echinochloa colonaJunglerice5486
20 NicaraguaNicaragua 2000 Rice fenoxaprop-P-ethyl 60 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
78Echinochloa colonaJunglerice5148
21 PanamaPanama 1999 Rice propanil 82 PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
78Echinochloa colonaJunglerice5153
22 United States (California) United StatesCalifornia2008 Corn (maize), Cotton, Fencelines, Grapes, Orchards, and Roadsides glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
78Echinochloa colonaJunglerice5545
23 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas2011 Rice imazethapyr, propanil, and quinclorac (MOA in monocots) 45 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
Cellulose inhibitors (L/26)
78Echinochloa colonaJunglerice10956
24 VenezuelaVenezuela 2000 Rice propanil 80 PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
78Echinochloa colonaJunglerice5149
25 VenezuelaVenezuela 2008 Rice fluazifop-P-butyl, and glyphosate 80 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
78Echinochloa colonaJunglerice10950
26 VenezuelaVenezuela 2010 Rice bispyribac-sodium, cyhalofop-butyl, and propanil 80 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
78Echinochloa colonaJunglerice5555
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