International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
GROUP B/2 RESISTANT EASTERN BLACK NIGHTSHADE
(Solanum ptycanthum)


ALS inhibitors (B/2)

United States, North Dakota
INTRODUCTION EASTERN BLACK NIGHTSHADE
Eastern Black Nightshade (Solanum ptycanthum) is a dicot weed in the Solanaceae family.  In North Dakota this weed first evolved resistance to Group B/2 herbicides in 1999 and infests Soybean.   Group B/2 herbicides are known as ALS inhibitors (Inhibition of acetolactate synthase ALS (acetohydroxyacid synthase AHAS)).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to imazamox, and imazethapyr and they may be cross-resistant to other Group B/2 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Sep 15, 2000 )

Common NameEastern Black Nightshade
SpeciesSolanum ptycanthum
GroupALS inhibitors (B/2)
Herbicidesimazamox, and imazethapyr
LocationUnited States, North Dakota
Year1999
Situation(s)Soybean
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Mike Christoffers, Kirk Howatt, and Richard Zollinger 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

AREAS FOUND

Richard Zollinger
Richland County. Still controlled by fomesafen, atrazine, and 2,4-D.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse trials comparing a known susceptible Eastern Black Nightshade biotype with this Eastern Black Nightshade biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group B/2 resistant Eastern Black Nightshade have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group B/2 resistant Eastern Black Nightshade from North Dakota please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

MIKE CHRISTOFFERS
Associate Professor
North Dakota State University
Plant Sciences
Loftsgard Hall 474A
Fargo, 58105, North Dakota
United States
Email Mike Christoffers
Web   : Web Site Link
KIRK HOWATT
Associate Professor
North Dakota State University
Department of Plant Sciences
Loftsgard Hall 470F
Fargo, 58108-6050, North Dakota
United States
Email Kirk Howatt
Web   : Web Site Link
RICHARD ZOLLINGER
Professor and Extension Specialist
North Dakota State University
Plant Sciences
Loftsgard Hall 470H
Fargo, 58105, North Dakota
United States
Email Richard Zollinger
Web   : Web Site Link

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in North Dakota have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Mike Christoffers, Kirk Howatt, and Richard Zollinger for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Eastern Black Nightshade Globally
(Solanum ptycanthum)
Herbicide Resistant Eastern Black Nightshade Globally
(Solanum ptycanthum)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Eastern Black Nightshade Globally
(Solanum ptycanthum)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 Canada (Ontario) CanadaOntario2000 Corn (maize), and Soybean flumetsulam, imazamox, imazethapyr, nicosulfuron, primisulfuron-methyl, prosulfuron, and rimsulfuron 7 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
190Solanum ptycanthumEastern Black Nightshade5211
2 Canada (Ontario) CanadaOntario2009 Blueberries paraquat 7 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
190Solanum ptycanthumEastern Black Nightshade5493
3 United States (Wisconsin) United StatesWisconsin1999 Soybean imazamox, and imazethapyr 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
190Solanum ptycanthumEastern Black Nightshade1170
4 United States (North Dakota) United StatesNorth Dakota1999 Soybean imazamox, and imazethapyr 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
190Solanum ptycanthumEastern Black Nightshade1196
5 United States (Illinois) United StatesIllinois1999 Soybean imazamox, and imazethapyr 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
190Solanum ptycanthumEastern Black Nightshade5184
6 United States (Michigan) United StatesMichigan2004 Blueberries atrazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
190Solanum ptycanthumEastern Black Nightshade5286
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