International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
GROUP B/2 RESISTANT COMMON COCKLEBUR
(Xanthium strumarium)


ALS inhibitors (B/2)

United States, Iowa
INTRODUCTION COMMON COCKLEBUR
Common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) is a dicot weed in the Asteraceae family.  In Iowa this weed first evolved resistance to Group B/2 herbicides in 1995 and infests Soybean.   Group B/2 herbicides are known as ALS inhibitors (Inhibition of acetolactate synthase ALS (acetohydroxyacid synthase AHAS)).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to chlorimuron-ethyl, and imazethapyr and they may be cross-resistant to other Group B/2 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Nov 20, 2000 )

Common NameCommon cocklebur
SpeciesXanthium strumarium
GroupALS inhibitors (B/2)
Herbicideschlorimuron-ethyl, and imazethapyr
LocationUnited States, Iowa
Year1995
Situation(s)Soybean
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Robert Hartzler 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

GENERAL

Robert Hartzler
Cross resistant to chlorimuron in some populations and not in others.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse trials comparing a known susceptible Common cocklebur biotype with this Common cocklebur biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group B/2 resistant Common cocklebur have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group B/2 resistant Common cocklebur from Iowa please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

ROBERT HARTZLER
Extension Weed Specialist and Professor of Agronomy
Iowa State University
Weed Science
2104 Agronomy Hall
Ames, 50011, Iowa
United States
Email Robert Hartzler
Web   : Web Site Link

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Iowa have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Robert Hartzler for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Common cocklebur Globally
(Xanthium strumarium)
Herbicide Resistant Common cocklebur Globally
(Xanthium strumarium)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Common cocklebur Globally
(Xanthium strumarium)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 United States (South Carolina) United StatesSouth Carolina1985 Cotton DSMA, and MSMA 45 Nucleic acid inhibitors (Z/17)
174Xanthium strumariumCommon cocklebur265
2 United States (Alabama) United StatesAlabama1988 Cotton DSMA, and MSMA 45 Nucleic acid inhibitors (Z/17)
174Xanthium strumariumCommon cocklebur224
3 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi1989 Soybean imazaquin, and imazethapyr 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
174Xanthium strumariumCommon cocklebur251
4 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas1989 Cotton, and Cropland MSMA 45 Nucleic acid inhibitors (Z/17)
174Xanthium strumariumCommon cocklebur404
5 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee1991 Cotton DSMA, and MSMA 45 Nucleic acid inhibitors (Z/17)
174Xanthium strumariumCommon cocklebur1104
6 United States (Louisiana) United StatesLouisiana1992 Cotton MSMA 45 Nucleic acid inhibitors (Z/17)
174Xanthium strumariumCommon cocklebur1045
7 United States (Missouri) United StatesMissouri1992 Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl, and imazaquin 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
174Xanthium strumariumCommon cocklebur1080
8 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee1992 Soybean imazaquin 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
174Xanthium strumariumCommon cocklebur1105
9 United States (Minnesota) United StatesMinnesota1994 Soybean imazethapyr 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
174Xanthium strumariumCommon cocklebur249
10 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi1994 Cotton DSMA, and MSMA 45 Nucleic acid inhibitors (Z/17)
174Xanthium strumariumCommon cocklebur254
11 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina1994 Cotton DSMA, and MSMA 45 Nucleic acid inhibitors (Z/17)
174Xanthium strumariumCommon cocklebur260
12 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas1995 Cropland, and Soybean imazaquin 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
174Xanthium strumariumCommon cocklebur401
13 United States (Iowa) United StatesIowa1995 Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl, and imazethapyr 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
174Xanthium strumariumCommon cocklebur1062
14 United States (Oklahoma) United StatesOklahoma1996 Soybean imazethapyr 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
174Xanthium strumariumCommon cocklebur1068
15 United States (Kansas) United StatesKansas1997 Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl, and imazethapyr 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
174Xanthium strumariumCommon cocklebur1041
16 United States (Maryland) United StatesMaryland1998 Unspecified chlorimuron-ethyl, imazaquin, and imazethapyr 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
174Xanthium strumariumCommon cocklebur1086
17 United States (Illinois) United StatesIllinois1998 Corn (maize), and Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl, and imazethapyr 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
174Xanthium strumariumCommon cocklebur7858
18 United States (Ohio) United StatesOhio1999 Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl, and cloransulam-methyl 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
174Xanthium strumariumCommon cocklebur1197
19 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina1999 Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl, cloransulam-methyl, imazapyr, primisulfuron-methyl, and pyrithiobac-sodium 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
174Xanthium strumariumCommon cocklebur7820
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Cite this site as: Heap, I.  The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds.  Online.  Internet.  Thursday, December 5, 2019 .  Available  www.weedscience.org
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