International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

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GROUP B/2 RESISTANT COMMON CHICKWEED
(Stellaria media)


ALS inhibitors (B/2)

United States, Kentucky
INTRODUCTION COMMON CHICKWEED
Common Chickweed (Stellaria media) is a dicot weed in the Caryophyllaceae family.  In Kentucky this weed first evolved resistance to Group B/2 herbicides in 2013 and infests Wheat.   Group B/2 herbicides are known as ALS inhibitors (Inhibition of acetolactate synthase ALS (acetohydroxyacid synthase AHAS)).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to chlorsulfuron, flucarbazone-sodium, thifensulfuron-methyl, and tribenuron-methyl and they may be cross-resistant to other Group B/2 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

If we do not have a picture for this weed, or you can provide a better picture (scan, digital camera etc) please please e-mail it to us.

QUIK STATS (last updated Jan 28, 2014 )

Common NameCommon Chickweed
SpeciesStellaria media
GroupALS inhibitors (B/2)
Herbicideschlorsulfuron, flucarbazone-sodium, thifensulfuron-methyl, and tribenuron-methyl
LocationUnited States, Kentucky
Year2013
Situation(s)Wheat
Contributors - (Alphabetically)James Martin 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

GENERAL

James Martin

ALS– RESISTANT COMMON CHICKWEED IN WHEAT

James R. Martin—Extension Professor of Wheat Science

In 2012, consultants with Wheat Tech reported finding common chickweed in several fields in Logan, Simpson, and Warren Counties that was not controlled with ALS inhibitors such as Harmony Extra or Finesse. ALS stands for Acetolactate Synthase which is an enzyme sys-tem that helps make certain amino acids in plants. The following photo is an example where an ALS-inhibitor her-bicide failed to control common chickweed in Kentucky this past season.

In 2008, ALS-resistant common chickweed was discovered in wheat in Virginia and is now believed to be in Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina, and Pennsylvania.

The potential impact of this resistance could be significant to Kentucky wheat growers. ALS-inhibitor herbicides play an important role in managing chickweed, henbit, and wild garlic in wheat in Kentucky. Harmony and Harmony Extra (and several generics of these) are applied on about 75% of the wheat acres in Kentucky.

Since common chickweed is fairly competitive, it is desirable to control plants when they are small. The majority of common chickweed emerges in the fall; therefore, fall applications tend to be preferred over spring applications for controlling this weed in wheat. The activity of ALS inhibitors tends to be slow, particularly during periods of cool temperatures. Consequently, it may be several weeks after fall applications before you know if the treatments were a success or a failure.

ALS-inhibitor herbicides tend to be prone to developing resistant weeds. The fact Kentucky growers have avoided ALS-resistant common chickweed in wheat for more than 25 years of widespread use of Harmony and similar herbicides, is no accident. Our rotation system of three crops over a two year period (i.e. Wheat / Double-Crop Soybean / Corn) has limited the development of ALS-resistant common chickweed. Applying burn-down applications of glyphosate, paraquat, or atrazine prior to corn planting early in the spring can limit production of common chickweed seed, if applications are applied before plants produce viable seed. Keep in mind, ALS-inhibitor products used in burndown appli-cations in corn such as Basis, Basis Blend, Resolve Q, Leadoff, or Crusher may not control populations of common chickweed that are resistant to this chemistry.

The Kentucky Small Grain Growers Association recently funded a the project to confirm this resistance and to evaluate alternative herbicide programs.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Common Chickweed biotype with this Common Chickweed biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group B/2 resistant Common Chickweed have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group B/2 resistant Common Chickweed from Kentucky please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

JAMES MARTIN
Professor
University of Kentucky
Research Education Center
1205 Hopkinsville St (Office:01)
Princeton, 42445-0469, Kentucky
United States
Email James Martin
Web   : Web Site Link

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Kentucky have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to James Martin for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Common Chickweed Globally
(Stellaria media)
Herbicide Resistant Common Chickweed Globally
(Stellaria media)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Common Chickweed Globally
(Stellaria media)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 BelgiumBelgium 2013 Wheat metsulfuron-methyl 3 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
168Stellaria mediaCommon Chickweed10959
2 Canada (Alberta) CanadaAlberta1988 Cereals, and Wheat chlorsulfuron, ethametsulfuron-methyl, imazamethabenz-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl, sulfometuron-methyl, and thifensulfuron-methyl 7 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
168Stellaria mediaCommon Chickweed481
3 Canada (Saskatchewan) CanadaSaskatchewan2005 Spring Barley, and Wheat thifensulfuron-methyl, and tribenuron-methyl 7 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
168Stellaria mediaCommon Chickweed5322
4 Canada (Manitoba) CanadaManitoba2008 Peas thifensulfuron-methyl, and tribenuron-methyl 7 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
168Stellaria mediaCommon Chickweed5630
5 ChinaChina 2010 Winter wheat fluroxypyr, and MCPA 9 Synthetic Auxins (O/4)
168Stellaria mediaCommon Chickweed5658
6 DenmarkDenmark 1991 Spring Barley, and Wheat chlorsulfuron, florasulam, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, and tribenuron-methyl 13 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
168Stellaria mediaCommon Chickweed86
7 FinlandFinland 2013 Spring Barley tribenuron-methyl 139 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
168Stellaria mediaCommon Chickweed9946
8 FranceFrance 2012 Wheat florasulam, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl, and thifensulfuron-methyl 17 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
168Stellaria mediaCommon Chickweed5688
9 GermanyGermany 1978 Corn (maize) atrazine 18 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
168Stellaria mediaCommon Chickweed435
10 GermanyGermany 2011 Rapeseed, Spring Barley, and Wheat amidosulfuron, florasulam, imazamox, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, nicosulfuron, pyroxsulam, thifensulfuron-methyl, tribenuron-methyl, triflusulfuron-methyl, and tritosulfuron 18 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
168Stellaria mediaCommon Chickweed6744
11 IrelandIreland 1996 Cereals metsulfuron-methyl 81 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
168Stellaria mediaCommon Chickweed5089
12 LatviaLatvia 2016 Winter wheat amidosulfuron 174 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
168Stellaria mediaCommon Chickweed15068
13 New ZealandNew Zealand 1995 Cereals chlorsulfuron 30 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
168Stellaria mediaCommon Chickweed161
14 NorwayNorway 2002 Cereals iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, metsulfuron-methyl, and tribenuron-methyl 31 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
168Stellaria mediaCommon Chickweed5165
15 South AfricaSouth Africa 2002 Cereals chlorsulfuron, metsulfuron-methyl, thifensulfuron-methyl, and triasulfuron 37 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
168Stellaria mediaCommon Chickweed5193
16 SwedenSweden 1995 Spring Barley, Spring wheat, and Winter wheat chlorsulfuron, florasulam, and tribenuron-methyl 40 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
168Stellaria mediaCommon Chickweed510
17 United KingdomUnited Kingdom 1985 Cereals, and Wheat mecoprop 44 Synthetic Auxins (O/4)
168Stellaria mediaCommon Chickweed358
18 United KingdomUnited Kingdom 2000 Cereals florasulam, and metsulfuron-methyl 44 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
168Stellaria mediaCommon Chickweed5088
19 United States (Virginia) United StatesVirginia2008 Wheat thifensulfuron-methyl 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
168Stellaria mediaCommon Chickweed5373
20 United States (Maryland) United StatesMaryland2009 Wheat chlorsulfuron, mesosulfuron-methyl, thifensulfuron-methyl, and tribenuron-methyl 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
168Stellaria mediaCommon Chickweed5374
21 United States (Pennsylvania) United StatesPennsylvania2010 Alfalfa, Spring Barley, and Wheat pyroxsulam, thifensulfuron-methyl, and tribenuron-methyl 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
168Stellaria mediaCommon Chickweed7898
22 United States (Delaware) United StatesDelaware2012 Wheat thifensulfuron-methyl, and tribenuron-methyl 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
168Stellaria mediaCommon Chickweed5708
23 United States (Kentucky) United StatesKentucky2013 Wheat chlorsulfuron, flucarbazone-sodium, thifensulfuron-methyl, and tribenuron-methyl 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
168Stellaria mediaCommon Chickweed7883
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