International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

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GROUP O/4 RESISTANT KOCHIA
(Kochia scoparia)


Synthetic Auxins (O/4)

United States, Nebraska
INTRODUCTION KOCHIA
Kochia (Kochia scoparia) is a dicot weed in the Chenopodiaceae family.  In Nebraska this weed first evolved resistance to Group O/4 herbicides in 2009 and infests Corn (maize).   Group O/4 herbicides are known as Synthetic Auxins (Synthetic auxins (action like indoleacetic acid)).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to dicamba and they may be cross-resistant to other Group O/4 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated May 12, 2015 )

Common NameKochia
SpeciesKochia scoparia
GroupSynthetic Auxins (O/4)
Herbicidesdicamba
LocationUnited States, Nebraska
Year2009
Situation(s)Corn (maize)
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Mark Bernards, Roberto Javier Crespo, and Greg Kruger 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

DOSE RESPONSE

Roberto Javier Crespo

Response of Nebraska Kochia (Kochia scoparia) Accessions to Dicamba

Weed Technology 28(1):151-162. 2014

Roberto J. Crespo, Mark L. Bernards, Gustavo M. Sbatella, Greg R. Kruger, Don J. Lee, and Robert G. Wilson

First, second, and fifth authors: Graduate Research Assistant, Assistant Professor, and Professor, respectively Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583; third author: Assistant Professor, Central Oregon Agricultural Research Center, Oregon State University, Madras, OR 97741; fourth author: Assistant Professor, West Central Research and Extension Center, University of Nebraska–Lincoln, North Platte, NE 69101; sixth author: Professor, Panhandle Research and Extension Center, University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Scottsbluff, NE 69361. Current address of second author: School of Agriculture, Western Illinois University, Macomb, IL 61455.

Corresponding author's E-mail: rojacre@yahoo.com.ar

Abstract Kochia is a troublesome weed in the western Great Plains and many accessions have evolved resistance to one or more herbicides. Dicamba-resistant soybean is being developed to provide an additional herbicide mechanism of action for POST weed control in soybean. The objective of this study was to evaluate variation in response to dicamba among kochia accessions collected from across Nebraska. Kochia plants were grown in a greenhouse and treated when they were 8 to 12 cm tall. A discriminating experiment with a single dose of 420 g ae ha−1 of dicamba was conducted on 67 accessions collected in Nebraska in 2010. Visual injury estimates were recorded at 21 d after treatment (DAT) and accessions were ranked from least to most susceptible. Four accessions representing two of the most and least susceptible accessions from this screening were subjected to dose-response experiments using dicamba. At 28 DAT, visible injury estimates were made and plants were harvested to determine dry weight. An 18-fold difference in dicamba dose was necessary to achieve 90% injury (I90) between the least (accession 11) and most susceptible accessions. Approximately 3,500 g ha−1 of dicamba was required in accession 11 to reach a 50% dry weight reduction (GR50). There was less than twofold variation among the three more susceptible accessions for both the I90 and GR90 parameters, suggesting that most kochia accessions will be similarly susceptible to dicamba. At 110 DAT, accession 11 had plants that survived doses of 35,840 g ha−1, and produced seed at doses of 17,420 g ha−1. The identification of one resistant accession among the 67 accessions screened, and the fact that dicamba doses greater than 560 g ha−1 were required to achieve GR80 for all accessions suggest that repeated use of dicamba for weed control in fields where kochia is present may quickly result in the evolution of dicamba-resistant kochia populations.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse trials comparing a known susceptible Kochia biotype with this Kochia biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group O/4 resistant Kochia have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group O/4 resistant Kochia from Nebraska please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

MARK BERNARDS
Assistant Professor
Western Illinois University
School Of Agriculture
Knoblauch Hall 227
Macomb, 61455-1390, Illinois
United States
Email Mark Bernards
Web   : Web Site Link
ROBERTO JAVIER CRESPO
Professor
Rosario National University
College of Agricultural Science
Campo Experimental Villarino C.C. 14
Zavalla, S2125ZAA, Santa Fe
Argentina
Email Roberto Javier Crespo
Web   : Web Site Link
GREG KRUGER
Assistant Professor
University Of Nebraska - Lincoln
Agronomy & Horticulture
West Central Research & Extension Center - 402 West State Farm Road
North Platte, 69101-7756, Nebraska
United States
Email Greg Kruger
Web   : Web Site Link

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Nebraska have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Mark Bernards, Roberto Javier Crespo, and Greg Kruger for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Kochia Globally
(Kochia scoparia)
Herbicide Resistant Kochia Globally
(Kochia scoparia)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Kochia Globally
(Kochia scoparia)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 Canada (Manitoba) CanadaManitoba1988 Industrial sites, Spring Barley, and Wheat chlorsulfuron, imazethapyr, metsulfuron-methyl, thifensulfuron-methyl, triasulfuron, and tribenuron-methyl 7 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
101Kochia scopariaKochia57
2 Canada (Saskatchewan) CanadaSaskatchewan1988 Cropland, and Wheat thifensulfuron-methyl, and tribenuron-methyl 7 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
101Kochia scopariaKochia5069
3 Canada (Alberta) CanadaAlberta1989 Spring Barley, and Wheat chlorsulfuron, metsulfuron-methyl, thifensulfuron-methyl, and tribenuron-methyl 7 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
101Kochia scopariaKochia65
4 Canada (Alberta) CanadaAlberta2012 Spring Barley, and Wheat glyphosate, thifensulfuron-methyl, and tribenuron-methyl 7 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
101Kochia scopariaKochia5592
5 Canada (Saskatchewan) CanadaSaskatchewan2012 Canola, Spring Barley, and Wheat glyphosate, thifensulfuron-methyl, and tribenuron-methyl 7 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
101Kochia scopariaKochia7834
6 Canada (Manitoba) CanadaManitoba2014 Corn (maize), and Soybean glyphosate, thifensulfuron-methyl, and tribenuron-methyl 7 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
101Kochia scopariaKochia9942
7 Canada (Saskatchewan) CanadaSaskatchewan2015 Spring wheat dicamba, fluroxypyr, thifensulfuron-methyl, and tribenuron-methyl 7 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Synthetic Auxins (O/4)
101Kochia scopariaKochia11032
8 Canada (Alberta) CanadaAlberta2017 Canola, Corn (maize), Fallow, Lentils, Peas, Wheat, and Winter barley dicamba, glyphosate, thifensulfuron-methyl, and tribenuron-methyl 7 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
Synthetic Auxins (O/4)
101Kochia scopariaKochia17147
9 Czech RepublicCzech Republic 1996 Railways, and Roadsides atrazine, chlorsulfuron, imazapyr, metsulfuron-methyl, nicosulfuron, prosulfuron, rimsulfuron, sulfosulfuron, thifensulfuron-methyl, tribenuron-methyl, and triflusulfuron-methyl 12 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
101Kochia scopariaKochia5050
10 United States (Kansas) United StatesKansas1976 Corn (maize), and Railways atrazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
101Kochia scopariaKochia1070
11 United States (Colorado) United StatesColorado1982 Corn (maize) atrazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
101Kochia scopariaKochia431
12 United States (Montana) United StatesMontana1984 Railways atrazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
101Kochia scopariaKochia414
13 United States (Wyoming) United StatesWyoming1984 Corn (maize) atrazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
101Kochia scopariaKochia1051
14 United States (Iowa) United StatesIowa1985 Railways atrazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
101Kochia scopariaKochia243
15 United States (Wisconsin) United StatesWisconsin1987 Corn (maize), and Railways atrazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
101Kochia scopariaKochia416
16 United States (North Dakota) United StatesNorth Dakota1987 Cropland, and Wheat chlorsulfuron, and metsulfuron-methyl 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
101Kochia scopariaKochia423
17 United States (Kansas) United StatesKansas1987 Cropland, and Wheat chlorsulfuron 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
101Kochia scopariaKochia1042
18 United States (New Mexico) United StatesNew Mexico1988 Railways, and Roadsides sulfometuron-methyl 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
101Kochia scopariaKochia256
19 United States (South Dakota) United StatesSouth Dakota1988 Cropland, and Wheat chlorsulfuron 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
101Kochia scopariaKochia269
20 United States (Idaho) United StatesIdaho1989 Roadsides, and Wheat chlorsulfuron 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
101Kochia scopariaKochia232
21 United States (Montana) United StatesMontana1989 Cropland, and Wheat chlorsulfuron, and metsulfuron-methyl 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
101Kochia scopariaKochia420
22 United States (Washington) United StatesWashington1989 Cereals, and Wheat chlorsulfuron 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
101Kochia scopariaKochia517
23 United States (Colorado) United StatesColorado1989 Roadsides, and Wheat metsulfuron-methyl, and triasulfuron 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
101Kochia scopariaKochia1049
24 United States (Illinois) United StatesIllinois1992 Cropland, and Railways atrazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
101Kochia scopariaKochia238
25 United States (Oklahoma) United StatesOklahoma1992 Roadsides, and Wheat chlorsulfuron, metsulfuron-methyl, and sulfometuron-methyl 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
101Kochia scopariaKochia1069
26 United States (Oregon) United StatesOregon1993 Wheat chlorsulfuron, metsulfuron-methyl, and triasulfuron 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
101Kochia scopariaKochia1175
27 United States (Minnesota) United StatesMinnesota1994 Cropland, and Wheat imazethapyr, thifensulfuron-methyl, and tribenuron-methyl 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
101Kochia scopariaKochia248
28 United States (Montana) United StatesMontana1994 Cropland, and Wheat dicamba, and fluroxypyr 45 Synthetic Auxins (O/4)
101Kochia scopariaKochia532
29 United States (Indiana) United StatesIndiana1995 Railways atrazine, cyanazine, and metsulfuron-methyl 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
101Kochia scopariaKochia405
30 United States (North Dakota) United StatesNorth Dakota1995 Wheat dicamba 45 Synthetic Auxins (O/4)
101Kochia scopariaKochia1047
31 United States (Illinois) United StatesIllinois1995 Corn (maize), Cropland, and Wheat atrazine, and metsulfuron-methyl 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
101Kochia scopariaKochia1126
32 United States (Wisconsin) United StatesWisconsin1995 Roadsides sulfometuron-methyl 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
101Kochia scopariaKochia1169
33 United States (Wyoming) United StatesWyoming1996 Wheat metsulfuron-methyl 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
101Kochia scopariaKochia1050
34 United States (Idaho) United StatesIdaho1997 Roadsides dicamba 45 Synthetic Auxins (O/4)
101Kochia scopariaKochia1058
35 United States (Utah) United StatesUtah1998 Industrial sites sulfometuron-methyl 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
101Kochia scopariaKochia1090
36 United States (North Dakota) United StatesNorth Dakota1998 Corn (maize) atrazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
101Kochia scopariaKochia1192
37 United States (Texas) United StatesTexas1998 Wheat metsulfuron-methyl 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
101Kochia scopariaKochia5063
38 United States (Colorado) United StatesColorado1999 Corn (maize) dicamba 45 Synthetic Auxins (O/4)
101Kochia scopariaKochia7868
39 United States (North Dakota) United StatesNorth Dakota2004 Railways diuron, metribuzin, and tebuthiuron 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
101Kochia scopariaKochia10986
40 United States (Michigan) United StatesMichigan2005 Sugar beets imazamox, and triflusulfuron-methyl 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
101Kochia scopariaKochia5287
41 United States (Kansas) United StatesKansas2007 Corn (maize), Cotton, and Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
101Kochia scopariaKochia5470
42 United States (Nebraska) United StatesNebraska2009 Corn (maize) dicamba 45 Synthetic Auxins (O/4)
101Kochia scopariaKochia5594
43 United States (South Dakota) United StatesSouth Dakota2009 Corn (maize), and Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
101Kochia scopariaKochia5636
44 United States (Nebraska) United StatesNebraska2011 Corn (maize), and Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
101Kochia scopariaKochia5585
45 United States (North Dakota) United StatesNorth Dakota2012 Corn (maize), and Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
101Kochia scopariaKochia5683
46 United States (Montana) United StatesMontana2012 Cereals glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
101Kochia scopariaKochia5711
47 United States (Colorado) United StatesColorado2012 Cereals glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
101Kochia scopariaKochia5714
48 United States (Oklahoma) United StatesOklahoma2013 Corn (maize) glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
101Kochia scopariaKochia6755
49 United States (Montana) United StatesMontana2013 Wheat glyphosate, metsulfuron-methyl, thifensulfuron-methyl, and tribenuron-methyl 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
101Kochia scopariaKochia7810
50 United States (Kansas) United StatesKansas2013 Corn (maize) atrazine, chlorsulfuron, dicamba, and glyphosate 45 Multiple Resistance: 4 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
Synthetic Auxins (O/4)
101Kochia scopariaKochia10972
51 United States (Kansas) United StatesKansas2013 Corn (maize), and Sorghum dicamba, fluroxypyr, and glyphosate 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
Synthetic Auxins (O/4)
101Kochia scopariaKochia10973
52 United States (Nebraska) United StatesNebraska2014 Corn (maize) atrazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
101Kochia scopariaKochia9926
53 United States (Oregon) United StatesOregon2014 Corn (maize), and Sugar beets glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
101Kochia scopariaKochia9944
54 United States (Idaho) United StatesIdaho2014 Corn (maize), and Sugar beets glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
101Kochia scopariaKochia9945
55 United States (Wyoming) United StatesWyoming2014 Sugar beets glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
101Kochia scopariaKochia10961
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