International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
GROUP K1/3 RESISTANT GOOSEGRASS
(Eleusine indica)


Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)

United States, Arkansas
INTRODUCTION GOOSEGRASS
Goosegrass (Eleusine indica) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In Arkansas this weed first evolved resistance to Group K1/3 herbicides in 1989 and infests Cotton, and Cropland.   Group K1/3 herbicides are known as Microtubule inhibitors (Microtubule assembly inhibition).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to trifluralin and they may be cross-resistant to other Group K1/3 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Sep 15, 2000 )

Common NameGoosegrass
SpeciesEleusine indica
GroupMicrotubule inhibitors (K1/3)
Herbicidestrifluralin
LocationUnited States, Arkansas
Year1989
Situation(s)Cotton, and Cropland
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Ford Baldwin, and Ronald Talbert : Retired 
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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse trials comparing a known susceptible Goosegrass biotype with this Goosegrass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group K1/3 resistant Goosegrass have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group K1/3 resistant Goosegrass from Arkansas please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

FORD BALDWIN
Practical Weed Consultants, Llc.
67 East Four Dinkus Rd
Austin, 72007, Arkansas
United States
Email Ford Baldwin
RONALD TALBERT : RETIRED
Retired From University Of Arkansas
P.O Box 2159
None, 72007, Arkansas
United States
Email Ronald Talbert : Retired

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Arkansas have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Ford Baldwin, and Ronald Talbert : Retired for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Goosegrass Globally
(Eleusine indica)
Herbicide Resistant Goosegrass Globally
(Eleusine indica)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Goosegrass Globally
(Eleusine indica)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 ArgentinaArgentina 2012 Corn (maize), Fallow, and Soybean glyphosate 48 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5701
2 Australia (Queensland) AustraliaQueensland2015 Sugarcane for sugar paraquat 1 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass11024
3 BoliviaBolivia 2005 Rice, Soybean, and Wheat clethodim, cyhalofop-butyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, and haloxyfop-methyl 4 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5412
4 BoliviaBolivia 2007 Soybean glyphosate 4 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass7887
5 BrazilBrazil 2003 Soybean cyhalofop-butyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, and sethoxydim 5 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5245
6 BrazilBrazil 2016 Corn (maize), Soybean, and Wheat glyphosate 5 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass13039
7 BrazilBrazil 2017 Beans, Corn (maize), Cotton, and Soybean fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, glyphosate, and haloxyfop-methyl 5 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass17112
8 ChinaChina 2010 Unspecified paraquat 9 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5659
9 ChinaChina 2010 Orchards glyphosate 9 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5661
10 ColombiaColombia 2006 Coffee, and Corn (maize) glyphosate 10 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5365
11 ColombiaColombia 2016 Corn (maize) glyphosate, and paraquat 10 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass18177
12 Costa RicaCosta Rica 1989 Industrial sites imazapyr 11 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass73
13 Costa RicaCosta Rica 2010 Pejibaye palm glyphosate 11 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass7884
14 IndonesiaIndonesia 2012 Oil Palm Nursery glyphosate, and paraquat 22 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass11020
15 IndonesiaIndonesia 2012 Corn (maize) paraquat 22 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass13034
16 JapanJapan 2013 Rice Paddy Levee glyphosate 25 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass10998
17 MalaysiaMalaysia 1990 Cropland, and Vegetables fluazifop-P-butyl, and propaquizafop 28 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass133
18 MalaysiaMalaysia 1990 Vegetables paraquat 28 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass140
19 MalaysiaMalaysia 1997 Orchards fluazifop-P-butyl, and glyphosate 28 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass1125
20 MalaysiaMalaysia 2009 Vegetables glufosinate-ammonium, and paraquat 28 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
Glutamine synthase inhibitors (H/10)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass7873
21 MalaysiaMalaysia 2009 Oil Palm Nursery butroxydim, fluazifop-P-butyl, glufosinate-ammonium, glyphosate, haloxyfop-methyl, and paraquat 28 Multiple Resistance: 4 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
Glutamine synthase inhibitors (H/10)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass9927
22 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina1973 Cotton trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass258
23 United States (South Carolina) United StatesSouth Carolina1974 Cotton, and Soybean trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass266
24 United States (Alabama) United StatesAlabama1987 Cotton trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass223
25 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee1988 Cotton, Golf courses, and Turf pendimethalin, prodiamine, and trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass1103
26 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas1989 Cotton, and Cropland trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass400
27 United States (Georgia) United StatesGeorgia1992 Cotton, Golf courses, and Turf trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass1043
28 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi1994 Cotton pendimethalin, and trifluralin 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass255
29 United States (Florida) United StatesFlorida1996 Tomatoes paraquat 45 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5053
30 United States (Hawaii) United StatesHawaii2003 Turf metribuzin 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5533
31 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi2010 Cotton glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5503
32 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee2011 Soybean glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass5549
33 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina2015 Golf courses oxadiazon 45 PPO inhibitors (E/14)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass15072
34 United States (Virginia) United StatesVirginia2015 Golf courses oxadiazon 45 PPO inhibitors (E/14)
81Eleusine indicaGoosegrass15073
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