International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
GROUP B/2 RESISTANT PERENNIAL RYEGRASS
(Lolium perenne)


ALS inhibitors (B/2)

United States, California
INTRODUCTION PERENNIAL RYEGRASS
Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In California this weed first evolved resistance to Group B/2 herbicides in 1989 and infests Railways, and Roadsides.   Group B/2 herbicides are known as ALS inhibitors (Inhibition of acetolactate synthase ALS (acetohydroxyacid synthase AHAS)).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to sulfometuron-methyl and they may be cross-resistant to other Group B/2 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Sep 15, 2000 )

Common NamePerennial Ryegrass
SpeciesLolium perenne
GroupALS inhibitors (B/2)
Herbicidessulfometuron-methyl
LocationUnited States, California
Year1989
Situation(s)Railways, and Roadsides
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Josephine Cotterman, and Leonard Saari 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

GENERAL

Saari, L. L., J. C. Cotterman, W. F. Smith, and M. M. Primiani. (1982) "Sulfonylurea Herbicide Resistance in Common Chickweed, Perennial Ryegrass and Russian Thistle," Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 42:110-118.

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GENERAL

Selection agent was sulfometuron/chlorsulfuron

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Perennial Ryegrass biotype with this Perennial Ryegrass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group B/2 resistant Perennial Ryegrass have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group B/2 resistant Perennial Ryegrass from California please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

JOSEPHINE COTTERMAN
E. I. Dupont Denemours & Co.
Dept.of Plant Sciences
One Shields Ave,
Newark, 19714, Delaware
United States
Email Josephine Cotterman
LEONARD SAARI
Manager, Technology Transfer & Licensing
E.i. Dupont Denemours Company
Central Research And Development
P.o. Box 80328
Wilmington, 19880-0328, Delaware
United States
Email Leonard Saari

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in California have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Josephine Cotterman, and Leonard Saari for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Perennial Ryegrass Globally
(Lolium perenne)
Herbicide Resistant Perennial Ryegrass Globally
(Lolium perenne)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Perennial Ryegrass Globally
(Lolium perenne)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 ArgentinaArgentina 2008 Soybean, Spring Barley, and Wheat glyphosate 48 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
111Lolium perennePerennial Ryegrass5487
2 ChileChile 2001 Cereals clodinafop-propargyl, and diclofop-methyl 8 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
111Lolium perennePerennial Ryegrass5397
3 DenmarkDenmark 2016 Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, and iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium 13 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
111Lolium perennePerennial Ryegrass15077
4 GermanyGermany 2008 Wheat iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, pinoxaden, and pyroxsulam 18 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
111Lolium perennePerennial Ryegrass5385
5 New ZealandNew Zealand 2012 Grapes glyphosate 30 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
111Lolium perennePerennial Ryegrass6750
6 New ZealandNew Zealand 2015 Grapes amitrole, glufosinate-ammonium, and glyphosate 30 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
Carotenoid biosynthesis (unknown target) (F3/11)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
Glutamine synthase inhibitors (H/10)
111Lolium perennePerennial Ryegrass14055
7 PortugalPortugal 2013 Grapes glyphosate 34 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
111Lolium perennePerennial Ryegrass7825
8 United States (California) United StatesCalifornia1989 Railways, and Roadsides sulfometuron-methyl 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
111Lolium perennePerennial Ryegrass396
9 United States (Texas) United StatesTexas1989 Roadsides sulfometuron-methyl 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
111Lolium perennePerennial Ryegrass397
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