International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
MULTIPLE RESISTANT BIRDSRAPE MUSTARD
(Brassica rapa (=B. campestris))


Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)

Argentina
INTRODUCTION BIRDSRAPE MUSTARD
Birdsrape Mustard (Brassica rapa (=B. campestris)) is a dicot weed in the Brassicaceae family.  In Argentina this weed first evolved multiple resistance (to 2 herbicide sites of action) in 2012 and infests Soybean, and Wheat.  Multiple resistance has evolved to herbicides in the Groups B/2, and G/9.  These particular biotypes are known to have resistance to diclosulam, glyphosate, imazapyr, and metsulfuron-methyl and they may be cross-resistant to other herbicides in the Groups B/2, and G/9.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Jan 27, 2018 )

Common NameBirdsrape Mustard
SpeciesBrassica rapa (=B. campestris)
GroupALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
Herbicidesdiclosulam, glyphosate, imazapyr, and metsulfuron-methyl
LocationArgentina
Year2012
Situation(s)Soybean, and Wheat
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Miguel Cantamutto, Claudio Pandolfo, and Alejandro Presotto 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

GENERAL

Claudio Pandolfo

Transgene escape and persistence in an agroecosystem: the case of glyphosate-resistant Brassica rapa L. in central Argentina.

Claudio E. Pandolfo & Alejandro Presotto & Francisco Torres Carbonell & Soledad Ureta & Mónica Poverene & Miguel Cantamutto

Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Published online 14th December 2017

https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-0726-3

Abstract Brassica rapa L. is an annual Brassicaceae species cultivated for oil and food production, whose wild form is a weed of crops worldwide. In temperate regions of South America and especially in the Argentine Pampas region, this species is widely distributed. During 2014, wild B. rapa populations that escaped control with glyphosate applications by farmers were found in this area. These plants were characterized by morphology and seed acidic profile, and all the characters agreed with B. rapa description. The dose-response assays showed that the biotypes were highly resistant to glyphosate. It was also shown that they had multiple resistance to AHAS inhibiting herbicides. The transgenic origin of the glyphosate resistance in B. rapa biotypes was verified by an immunological test which confirmed the presence of the CP4 EPSPS protein and by an event-specific GT73 molecular marker. The persistence of the transgene in nature was confirmed for at least 4 years, in ruderal and agrestal habitats. This finding suggests that glyphosate resistance might come from GM oilseed rape crops illegally cultivated in the country or as a seed contaminant, and it implies gene flow and introgression between feral populations of GM B. napus and wild B. rapa. The persistence and spread of the resistance in agricultural environments was promoted by the high selection pressure imposed by intensive herbicide usage in the prevalent no-till farming systems.

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MECHANISM

Claudio Pandolfo
This biotype has multiple herbicide resistance, to glyphosate and AHAS-inhibiting herbicides. However, we have probed that the glyphosate resistance was transgenic. We believe that the presence of the transgene in wild populations of B. rapa involved gene flow from transgenic oilseed rape cultivars or from feral populations having that event or through the introduction of these B. rapa biotypes as a seed contaminant from other countries (because transgenic oilseed rape is forbidden in Argentina). The multiple resistance to AHAS-inhibiting herbicides might been also due to gene flow with IMI-resistant (Clearfield) oilseed rape cultivars, but we couldn’t probed this hypothesis yet. We have probed that this Brassica rapa biotype has the Trp-574-Leu mutation in AHAS enzyme gene, as in other resistant weed cases (like Raphanus sativus from Argentina).

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Birdsrape Mustard biotype with this Birdsrape Mustard biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group B, G/2, 9 resistant Birdsrape Mustard have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

Studies on the mechanism of resistance of multiple resistant Birdsrape Mustard from Argentina indicate that resistance is due to an altered target site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the mechanism of resistance in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of multiple resistant Birdsrape Mustard from Argentina please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

MIGUEL CANTAMUTTO
Full Profesor
Universidad Nacional Del Sur
Departamento De Agronomía
San Andrés 800
Bahía Blanca, 8000, Buenos Aires
Argentina
Email Miguel Cantamutto
CLAUDIO PANDOLFO
Dr. - Postdoc - T.A.
Universidad Nacional Del Sur, CERZOS-CONICET
Departamento De Agronomía
San Andrés 800
Bahía Blanca, 8000, Buenos Aires
Argentina
Email Claudio Pandolfo
Web   : Web Site Link
ALEJANDRO PRESOTTO
Adjunct Researcher
Universidad Nacional del Sur; CERZOS-CONICET
Departamento de Agronomía
San Andrés 800
Bahía Blanca, 8000, Buenos Aires
Argentina
Email Alejandro Presotto
Web   : Web Site Link

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Argentina have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Miguel Cantamutto, Claudio Pandolfo, and Alejandro Presotto for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Birdsrape Mustard Globally
(Brassica rapa (=B. campestris))
Herbicide Resistant Birdsrape Mustard Globally
(Brassica rapa (=B. campestris))
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Birdsrape Mustard Globally
(Brassica rapa (=B. campestris))
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 ArgentinaArgentina 2012 Soybean, and Wheat diclosulam, glyphosate, imazapyr, and metsulfuron-methyl 48 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
36Brassica rapa (=B. campestris)Birdsrape Mustard17120
2 Canada (Quebec) CanadaQuebec1977 Corn (maize) atrazine 7 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
36Brassica rapa (=B. campestris)Birdsrape Mustard433
3 Canada (Quebec) CanadaQuebec2017 Corn (maize), and Soybean glyphosate 7 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
36Brassica rapa (=B. campestris)Birdsrape Mustard17130
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Cite this site as: Heap, I.  The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds.  Online.  Internet.  Monday, September 16, 2019 .  Available  www.weedscience.org
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