International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
HRAC GROUP 1 (LEGACY A) RESISTANT LITTLE SEED CANARY GRASS
(Phalaris minor)


Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase HRAC Group 1 (Legacy A)

Israel
INTRODUCTION BLACKGRASS
Blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In Belgium this weed first evolved multiple resistance (to 4 herbicide sites of action) in 1996 and infests Wheat.  Multiple resistance has evolved to herbicides in the Groups 1 (Legacy A), Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B), PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2), and Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 HRAC Group 3 (Legacy K1).  These particular biotypes are known to have resistance to fenoxaprop-ethyl and they may be cross-resistant to other herbicides in the Groups 1 (Legacy A), Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B), PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2), and Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 HRAC Group 3 (Legacy K1).

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Nov 21, 2000 )

Common NameBlackgrass
SpeciesAlopecurus myosuroides
GroupInhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase HRAC Group 1 (Legacy A)

Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)

PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)

Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 HRAC Group 3 (Legacy K1)
Herbicidesfenoxaprop-ethyl
LocationBelgium
Year1996
Situation(s)Wheat
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Baruch Rubin 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

AREAS FOUND

Baruch Rubin
Gilat Experiment Station.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Field, Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Blackgrass biotype with this Blackgrass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on HRAC Group 1, 2, 5, 3 resistant Blackgrass have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of multiple resistant Blackgrass from Belgium please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

BARUCH RUBIN
Professor
Hebrew University Of Jerusalem
Inst. Plant Sci. & Genetics In Agriculture
Faculty Of Agric.
Food & Environm.
Rehovot, 76100, Israel
Israel
Email Baruch Rubin

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Belgium have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Baruch Rubin for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Little seed Canary grass Globally
(Phalaris minor)
Herbicide Resistant Little seed Canary grass Globally
(Phalaris minor)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Little seed Canary grass Globally
(Phalaris minor)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria2012 Wheat clodinafop-propargyl 1 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass7838
2 IndiaIndia 1991 Wheat isoproturon 21 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/7)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass222
3 IndiaIndia 1994 Wheat diclofop-methyl, and pinoxaden 21 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass7815
4 IndiaIndia 2006 Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, fenoxaprop-ethyl, isoproturon, mesosulfuron-methyl, pinoxaden, pyroxsulam, and sulfosulfuron 21 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/7)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass5324
5 IndiaIndia 2013 Wheat iodosulfuron-methyl-Na, and mesosulfuron-methyl 21 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass7816
6 IranIran 2004 Winter wheat clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, fenoxaprop-ethyl, pinoxaden, and tralkoxydim 79 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass5377
7 IsraelIsrael 1993 Wheat fenoxaprop-ethyl 23 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass111
8 MexicoMexico 1996 Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, fenoxaprop-ethyl, fluazifop-butyl, pinoxaden, sethoxydim, and tralkoxydim 29 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass478
9 PakistanPakistan 2015 Wheat fenoxaprop-ethyl 86 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass15074
10 South AfricaSouth Africa 1999 Pastures, and Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, fenoxaprop-ethyl, haloxyfop-methyl, iodosulfuron-methyl-Na, mesosulfuron-methyl, propaquizafop, quizalofop-ethyl, and sulfosulfuron 37 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass5194
11 United States (California) United StatesCalifornia2001 Onions clethodim, fenoxaprop-ethyl, fluazifop-butyl, and sethoxydim 45 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
127Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grass5163
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