International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
MULTIPLE RESISTANT RIGID RYEGRASS
(Lolium rigidum)


Multiple Resistance: 7 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Carotenoid biosynthesis (unknown target) (F3/13)
Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
Mitosis inhibitors (K2/23)
Long chain fatty acid inhibitors (K3/15)
Lipid Inhibitors (thiocarbamates) (N/8)
Australia, South Australia
INTRODUCTION RIGID RYEGRASS
Rigid Ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In South Australia this weed first evolved multiple resistance (to 7 herbicide sites of action) in 1982 and infests Barley, and Wheat.  Multiple resistance has evolved to herbicides in the Groups A/1, B/2, F3/13, K1/3, K2/23, K3/15, and N/8.  These particular biotypes are known to have resistance to chlorpropham, chlorsulfuron, clomazone, diclofop-methyl, ethalfluralin, fluazifop-P-butyl, imazapyr, metolachlor, metsulfuron-methyl, quizalofop-P-ethyl, sethoxydim, tralkoxydim, triallate, triasulfuron, and trifluralin and they may be cross-resistant to other herbicides in the Groups A/1, B/2, F3/13, K1/3, K2/23, K3/15, and N/8.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Aug 09, 2012 )

Common NameRigid Ryegrass
SpeciesLolium rigidum
GroupACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Carotenoid biosynthesis (unknown target) (F3/13)
Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
Mitosis inhibitors (K2/23)
Long chain fatty acid inhibitors (K3/15)
Lipid Inhibitors (thiocarbamates) (N/8)
Herbicideschlorpropham, chlorsulfuron, clomazone, diclofop-methyl, ethalfluralin, fluazifop-P-butyl, imazapyr, metolachlor, metsulfuron-methyl, quizalofop-P-ethyl, sethoxydim, tralkoxydim, triallate, triasulfuron, and trifluralin
LocationAustralia, South Australia
Year1982
Situation(s)Barley, and Wheat
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Christopher Preston 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

AREAS FOUND

Christopher Preston
All cropping regions of Western Australia (south).

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CROSS RESISTANCE

Christopher Preston
Cross-resistance to numerous herbicides, including chloracetamides. It should be noted that not all biotypes have resistance to each of the herbicides listed. The most common resistances are to ACCase inhibitors and ALS inhibitors.

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GENERAL

Christopher Preston
The chloracetamides work was done by Burnet - Weed Science 42:153.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Field, and Greenhouse trials comparing a known susceptible Rigid Ryegrass biotype with this Rigid Ryegrass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group A, B, F3, K1, K2, K3, N/1, 2, 13, 3, 23, 15, 8 resistant Rigid Ryegrass have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

Studies on the mechanism of resistance of multiple resistant Rigid Ryegrass from South Australia indicate that resistance is due to an altered target site, and enhanced metabolism.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the mechanism of resistance in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of multiple resistant Rigid Ryegrass from South Australia please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

CHRISTOPHER PRESTON
University Of Adelaide - Waite Campus
Crc For Australian Weed Management And School Of Agriculture
Box 2146
Adelaide, 5064, South Australia
Australia
Email Christopher Preston

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in South Australia have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Christopher Preston for providing detailed information.
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Herbicide Resistant Rigid Ryegrass Globally
(Lolium rigidum)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia1982 Barley, Canola, and Wheat chlorsulfuron, diclofop-methyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, sethoxydim, tralkoxydim, and trifluralin 1 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass15
2 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia1982 Barley, and Wheat chlorpropham, chlorsulfuron, clomazone, diclofop-methyl, ethalfluralin, fluazifop-P-butyl, imazapyr, metolachlor, metsulfuron-methyl, quizalofop-P-ethyl, sethoxydim, tralkoxydim, triallate, triasulfuron, and trifluralin 1 Multiple Resistance: 7 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Carotenoid biosynthesis (unknown target) (F3/13)
Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
Mitosis inhibitors (K2/23)
Long chain fatty acid inhibitors (K3/15)
Lipid Inhibitors (thiocarbamates) (N/8)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass389
3 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia1984 Barley, Cropland, and Wheat chlorsulfuron, and metsulfuron-methyl 1 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass324
4 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia1984 Cropland, and Pasture seed trifluralin 1 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass330
5 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia1984 Cropland metolachlor 1 Long chain fatty acid inhibitors (K3/15)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass398
6 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria1984 Barley, Pastures, and Wheat chlorsulfuron, diclofop-methyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, metsulfuron-methyl, quizalofop-P-ethyl, sethoxydim, and trifluralin 1 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5042
7 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 1985 Barley, Canola, Chickpea, Faba beans, Lentils, Lupins, Peas, and Wheat chlorsulfuron, diclofop-methyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, haloxyfop-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl, quizalofop-P-ethyl, sethoxydim, tralkoxydim, triasulfuron, and trifluralin 1 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass4
8 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia1988 Railways, and Roadsides amitrole 1 Carotenoid biosynthesis (unknown target) (F3/11)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass316
9 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia1988 Cropland, Pasture seed, Railways, Roadsides, and Triazine-tolerant canola atrazine, and simazine 1 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass480
10 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia1994 Cereals trifluralin 1 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5226
11 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria1996 Canola, Cereals, Fencelines, and Wheat glyphosate 1 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass380
12 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 1997 Apples, Around Buildings, Canola, Cereals, Fencelines, Irrigation Channels, Roadsides, and Wheat glyphosate 1 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5094
13 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia1999 Alfalfa, Cereals, Clover, Fencelines, Grapes, Irrigation Channels, and Roadsides glyphosate 1 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5188
14 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria1999 Wheat chlorsulfuron, diclofop-methyl, glyphosate, and trifluralin 1 Multiple Resistance: 4 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5363
15 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia2003 Cereals, Fencelines, Grapes, Railways, and Roadsides glyphosate 1 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5325
16 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia2008 Grapes amitrole, and glyphosate 1 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Carotenoid biosynthesis (unknown target) (F3/11)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5515
17 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia2010 Pasture seed clethodim, and paraquat 1 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5489
18 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia2010 Pasture seed atrazine, chlorsulfuron, clethodim, glyphosate, haloxyfop-methyl, imazapyr, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, and paraquat 1 Multiple Resistance: 5 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5510
19 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia2013 Grapes glyphosate, and paraquat 1 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass6754
20 ChileChile 1997 Canola, Cereals, Lupins, Spring wheat, and Winter wheat clethodim, clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, haloxyfop-methyl, sethoxydim, and tralkoxydim 8 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5102
21 ChileChile 2003 Wheat clethodim, clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, flucarbazone-sodium, haloxyfop-methyl, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, pinoxaden, and tepraloxydim 8 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5427
22 FranceFrance 1993 Wheat diclofop-methyl 17 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass550
23 FranceFrance 2005 Grapes, and Orchards glyphosate 17 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5285
24 FranceFrance 2006 Wheat flupyrsulfuron-methyl-sodium, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, and propoxycarbazone-sodium 17 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5330
25 GreeceGreece 1997 Winter wheat diclofop-methyl 19 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass553
26 IranIran 2007 Winter wheat diclofop-methyl 79 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5340
27 IsraelIsrael 1979 Orchards, and Roadsides atrazine, and simazine 23 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass97
28 IsraelIsrael 1998 Alfalfa diclofop-methyl, and quizalofop-P-ethyl 23 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5109
29 IsraelIsrael 2007 Wheat chlorsulfuron, clodinafop-propargyl, florasulam, flumetsulam, glyphosate, imazapyr, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, metosulam, pinoxaden, propoxycarbazone-sodium, sulfometuron-methyl, and tribenuron-methyl 23 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5556
30 ItalyItaly 2007 Grapes, and Orchards glyphosate 24 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5370
31 Saudi ArabiaSaudi Arabia 1992 Cereals, and Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, and tralkoxydim 35 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass551
32 South AfricaSouth Africa 1993 Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, haloxyfop-methyl, imazamox, sethoxydim, and tralkoxydim 37 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass192
33 South AfricaSouth Africa 2001 Grapes glyphosate 37 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5093
34 South AfricaSouth Africa 2002 Fruit, and Grapes paraquat 37 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5119
35 South AfricaSouth Africa 2003 Grapes glyphosate, haloxyfop-methyl, paraquat, and tepraloxydim 37 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5239
36 SpainSpain 1992 Wheat chlorotoluron, and diclofop-methyl 38 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass172
37 SpainSpain 1992 Wheat diclofop-methyl 38 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass173
38 SpainSpain 1992 Orchards simazine 38 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass174
39 SpainSpain 2006 Orchards glyphosate 38 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5332
40 TunisiaTunisia 1996 Cereals diclofop-methyl 78 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass5028
41 United States (California) United StatesCalifornia1998 Almonds, and Orchards glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
112Lolium rigidumRigid Ryegrass1034
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