International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

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Herbicide Resistant Palmer Amaranth Globally
(Amaranthus palmeri)
Herbicide Resistant Palmer Amaranth Globally
(Amaranthus palmeri)
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Herbicide Resistant Palmer Amaranth Globally
(Amaranthus palmeri)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 ArgentinaArgentina 2015 Soybean glyphosate 48 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth13038
2 BrazilBrazil 2015 Cotton glyphosate 5 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth11009
3 BrazilBrazil 2016 Corn (maize), Cotton, and Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl, cloransulam-methyl, glyphosate, and imazethapyr 5 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth13042
4 IsraelIsrael 2008 Corn (maize), Cotton, and Watermelon foramsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methyl-Na, mesosulfuron-methyl, pyrithiobac-sodium, rimsulfuron, and trifloxysulfuron-Na 23 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth9921
5 MexicoMexico 2016 Cotton glyphosate 29 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth18195
6 South AfricaSouth Africa 2018 Cotton chlorimuron-ethyl, and glyphosate 37 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth23244
7 SpainSpain 2016 Corn (maize), and Roadsides nicosulfuron 38 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth18204
8 United States (South Carolina) United StatesSouth Carolina1989 Cotton, and Soybean trifluralin 45 Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth267
9 United States (Texas) United StatesTexas1993 Corn (maize), and Sorghum atrazine 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth270
10 United States (Kansas) United StatesKansas1993 Alfalfa, Corn (maize), Sorghum, and Soybean imazethapyr 45 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth332
11 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas1994 Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl, diclosulam, imazaquin, imazethapyr, and pyrithiobac-sodium 45 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth403
12 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee1994 Cotton, and Soybean imazaquin, and pyrithiobac-sodium 45 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5313
13 United States (Kansas) United StatesKansas1995 Corn (maize), and Sorghum atrazine 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth1040
14 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina1995 Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl 45 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth1059
15 United States (South Carolina) United StatesSouth Carolina1997 Corn (maize), Cotton, Peanut (groundnut), and Soybean imazapic, imazaquin, and imazethapyr 45 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth1111
16 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee1998 Cotton, and Soybean trifluralin 45 Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5569
17 United States (Georgia) United StatesGeorgia2000 Peanut (groundnut) imazapic, and imazethapyr 45 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5092
18 United States (Georgia) United StatesGeorgia2005 Cotton, and Soybean glyphosate 45 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5256
19 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina2005 Corn (maize), Cotton, and Soybean glyphosate 45 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5360
20 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas2006 Cotton, and Soybean glyphosate 45 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5296
21 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee2006 Corn (maize), Cotton, and Soybean glyphosate 45 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5387
22 United States (South Carolina) United StatesSouth Carolina2006 Cotton, and Soybean glyphosate 45 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth7780
23 United States (New Mexico) United StatesNew Mexico2007 Orchards, and Pecan nut glyphosate 45 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5386
24 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi2008 Cotton glyphosate, and pyrithiobac-sodium 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5359
25 United States (Florida) United StatesFlorida2008 Cropland imazapic, and pyrithiobac-sodium 45 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5369
26 United States (Alabama) United StatesAlabama2008 Soybean glyphosate 45 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5388
27 United States (Missouri) United StatesMissouri2008 Corn (maize), Cotton, and Soybean glyphosate 45 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5391
28 United States (Georgia) United StatesGeorgia2008 Cotton glyphosate, and pyrithiobac-sodium 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5498
29 United States (Georgia) United StatesGeorgia2008 Corn (maize) atrazine 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5499
30 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee2009 Cotton, and Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl, glyphosate, and pyrithiobac-sodium 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5571
31 United States (Kansas) United StatesKansas2009 Corn (maize), and Sorghum atrazine, mesotrione, pyrasulfotole, tembotrione, thifensulfuron-methyl, and topramezone 45 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
Inhibition of Hydroxyphenyl Pyruvate Dioxygenase (F2/27)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5705
32 United States (Louisiana) United StatesLouisiana2010 Cotton glyphosate 45 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5494
33 United States (Illinois) United StatesIllinois2010 Corn (maize), and Soybean glyphosate 45 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5543
34 United States (Ohio) United StatesOhio2010 Corn (maize), and Soybean glyphosate 45 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5696
35 United States (South Carolina) United StatesSouth Carolina2010 Corn (maize), Cotton, and Soybean glyphosate, pyrithiobac-sodium, thifensulfuron-methyl, and trifloxysulfuron-Na 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth7781
36 United States (Georgia) United StatesGeorgia2010 Corn (maize) atrazine, glyphosate, imazapic, and pyrithiobac-sodium 45 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth7788
37 United States (Kentucky) United StatesKentucky2010 Soybean glyphosate 45 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth7882
38 United States (Michigan) United StatesMichigan2011 Soybean glyphosate 45 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5557
39 United States (Virginia) United StatesVirginia2011 Soybean glyphosate 45 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5568
40 United States (Nebraska) United StatesNebraska2011 Corn (maize) atrazine 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5694
41 United States (Nebraska) United StatesNebraska2011 Corn (maize) mesotrione, tembotrione, and topramezone 45 Inhibition of Hydroxyphenyl Pyruvate Dioxygenase (F2/27)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5700
42 United States (Kansas) United StatesKansas2011 Cotton, and Soybean glyphosate 45 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5704
43 United States (Texas) United StatesTexas2011 Cotton glyphosate 45 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth7777
44 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas2011 Soybean fomesafen, pyrithiobac-sodium, and trifloxysulfuron-Na 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase (E/14)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth11006
45 United States (Arizona) United StatesArizona2012 Cotton glyphosate, and pyrithiobac-sodium 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5699
46 United States (Delaware) United StatesDelaware2012 Soybean glyphosate 45 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth5707
47 United States (Indiana) United StatesIndiana2012 Corn (maize), and Soybean glyphosate 45 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth7835
48 United States (Pennsylvania) United StatesPennsylvania2013 Soybean glyphosate 45 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth7779
49 United States (Illinois) United StatesIllinois2013 Corn (maize), and Soybean imazethapyr, and primisulfuron-methyl 45 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth7866
50 United States (Illinois) United StatesIllinois2013 Corn (maize), and Soybean glyphosate, imazethapyr, and primisulfuron-methyl 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth7867
51 United States (Florida) United StatesFlorida2013 Corn (maize), and Cotton glyphosate 45 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth7869
52 United States (Florida) United StatesFlorida2013 Soybean glyphosate, and imazapic 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth7870
53 United States (Wisconsin) United StatesWisconsin2013 Corn (maize), and Soybean glyphosate 45 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth10957
54 United States (Delaware) United StatesDelaware2014 Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl, and glyphosate 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth8914
55 United States (Maryland) United StatesMaryland2014 Soybean chlorimuron-ethyl, and glyphosate 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth8915
56 United States (New Jersey) United StatesNew Jersey2014 Soybean glyphosate 45 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth9922
57 United States (Nebraska) United StatesNebraska2014 Corn (maize) atrazine, mesotrione, tembotrione, and topramezone 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
Inhibition of Hydroxyphenyl Pyruvate Dioxygenase (F2/27)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth13048
58 United States (Wisconsin) United StatesWisconsin2014 Corn (maize) imazethapyr, tembotrione, and thifensulfuron-methyl 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Hydroxyphenyl Pyruvate Dioxygenase (F2/27)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth16099
59 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee2015 Soybean fomesafen, and glyphosate 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase (E/14)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth13037
60 United States (California) United StatesCalifornia2015 Corn (maize) glyphosate 45 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth13041
61 United States (Kansas) United StatesKansas2015 Sorghum 2,4-D, atrazine, chlorsulfuron, glyphosate, and mesotrione 45 Multiple Resistance: 5 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
Inhibition of Hydroxyphenyl Pyruvate Dioxygenase (F2/27)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
Auxin Mimics (O/4)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth18157
62 United States (Nebraska) United StatesNebraska2016 Soybean atrazine, and glyphosate 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth13047
63 United States (Illinois) United StatesIllinois2016 Corn (maize), Horseradish, and Soybean fomesafen, glyphosate, and lactofen 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase (E/14)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth13050
64 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas2016 Cotton, and Soybean acifluorfen, carfentrazone-ethyl, flumetsulam, fluthiacet-methyl, fomesafen, glyphosate, imazethapyr, lactofen, pendimethalin, pyraflufen-ethyl, pyrithiobac-sodium, S-metolachlor, and trifloxysulfuron-Na 45 Multiple Resistance: 5 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase (E/14)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors (K3 N/15)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth18156
65 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina2016 Corn (maize) mesotrione 45 Inhibition of Hydroxyphenyl Pyruvate Dioxygenase (F2/27)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth18188
66 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas2017 Soybean S-metolachlor 45 Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors (K3 N/15)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth18154
67 United States (Oklahoma) United StatesOklahoma2018 Soybean glyphosate 45 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth17134
68 United States (Kansas) United StatesKansas2018 Sorghum 2,4-D 45 Auxin Mimics (O/4)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth18151
69 United States (Connecticut) United StatesConnecticut2019 Pumpkin and squash chlorimuron-ethyl, glyphosate, halosulfuron-methyl, imazaquin, and sulfometuron-methyl 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth18206
70 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee2020 Cotton, and Soybean dicamba, and glyphosate 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
Auxin Mimics (O/4)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth19221
71 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas2020 Cotton glufosinate-ammonium 45 Inhibition of Glutamine Synthetase (H/10)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth20229
72 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina2022 Corn (maize) atrazine 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth23241
73 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina2022 Cotton glufosinate-ammonium 45 Inhibition of Glutamine Synthetase (H/10)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth24244
74 UruguayUruguay 2022 Corn (maize), and Soybean glyphosate 73 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14Amaranthus palmeriPalmer Amaranth24254
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Cite this site as: Heap, I.  The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds.  Online.  Internet.  Saturday, February 4, 2023 .  Available  www.weedscience.org
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