International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
(Mitracarpus hirtus )

PS I Electron Diversion HRAC Group 22 (Legacy D)

Australia, Queensland
Tropical Girdlepod (Mitracarpus hirtus ) is a dicot weed in the Rubiaceae family.  In Queensland this weed first evolved resistance to Group 22 (Legacy D) herbicides in 2007 and infests Orchards.   Group 22 (Legacy D) herbicides are known as PS I Electron Diversion (PSI Electron Diversion ).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to diquat, and paraquat and they may be cross-resistant to other Group 22 (Legacy D) herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

If we do not have a picture for this weed, or you can provide a better picture (scan, digital camera etc) please please e-mail it to us.

QUIK STATS (last updated Apr 17, 2008 )

Common NameTropical Girdlepod
SpeciesMitracarpus hirtus
GroupPS I Electron Diversion HRAC Group 22 (Legacy D)
Herbicidesdiquat, and paraquat
LocationAustralia, Queensland
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Christopher Preston 
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Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse trials comparing a known susceptible Tropical Girdlepod biotype with this Tropical Girdlepod biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.

Genetic studies on HRAC Group 22 resistant Tropical Girdlepod have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group 22 (Legacy D) resistant Tropical Girdlepod from Queensland please update the database.
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University Of Adelaide - Waite Campus
Crc For Australian Weed Management And School Of Agriculture
Box 2146
Adelaide, 5064, South Australia
Email Christopher Preston


The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Queensland have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Christopher Preston for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Tropical Girdlepod Globally
(Mitracarpus hirtus )
Herbicide Resistant Tropical Girdlepod Globally
(Mitracarpus hirtus )
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Tropical Girdlepod Globally
(Mitracarpus hirtus )
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 Australia (Queensland) AustraliaQueensland2007 Orchards diquat, and paraquat 1 PS I Electron Diversion ( HRAC Group 22 (Legacy D)
240Mitracarpus hirtus Tropical Girdlepod5349
Literature about Similar Cases

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