INTERNATIONAL HERBICIDE-RESISTANT WEED DATABASE

HRAC GROUP 9 (LEGACY G) RESISTANT BARNYARDGRASS
(Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli)


Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase HRAC Group 9 (Legacy G)

Portugal
INTRODUCTION BARNYARDGRASS
Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In Portugal this weed first evolved resistance to Group 9 (Legacy G) herbicides in 2018 and infests Corn (maize), Grapes, and Pomegranate.   Group 9 (Legacy G) herbicides are known as Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (Inhibition of EPSP synthase).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to glyphosate and they may be cross-resistant to other Group 9 (Legacy G) herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Feb 24, 2024 )

Common NameBarnyardgrass
SpeciesEchinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli
GroupInhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase HRAC Group 9 (Legacy G)
Herbicidesglyphosate
LocationPortugal
Year2018
Situation(s)Corn (maize), Grapes, and Pomegranate
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Isabel Calha 
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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Barnyardgrass biotype with this Barnyardgrass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on HRAC Group 9 resistant Barnyardgrass have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

Studies on the mechanism of resistance of Group 9 (Legacy G) resistant Barnyardgrass from Portugal indicate that resistance is due to gene amplification.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the mechanism of resistance in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group 9 (Legacy G) resistant Barnyardgrass from Portugal please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

ISABEL CALHA
Instituto Nacional De Recursos Biológicos, Ip (inrb I.p. )
Laboratório Nacional De Investigação Agrária (linia)
Unidade De Investigação De Protecção De Plantas (uipp)
Dept of Agronomy& Plant Genetics
411 Borlaug Hall, 1991 Upper Buford Circle
Oeiras, 2784-505
Portugal
Email Isabel Calha

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Portugal have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Isabel Calha for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Barnyardgrass Globally
(Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli)
Herbicide Resistant Barnyardgrass Globally
(Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Barnyardgrass Globally
(Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 ArgentinaArgentina 2019 Corn (maize) glyphosate 48 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase ( HRAC Group 9 (Legacy G)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass18183
2 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2021 Rice cyhalofop-butyl, and profoxydim 1 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase ( HRAC Group 1 (Legacy A)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass19214
3 AustriaAustria 2011 Corn (maize) nicosulfuron 2 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass6747
4 BrazilBrazil 1999 Rice quinclorac 5 Auxin Mimics ( HRAC Group 4 (Legacy O)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass1191
5 BrazilBrazil 2009 Rice bispyribac-sodium, imazethapyr, penoxsulam, and quinclorac 5 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
Auxin Mimics ( HRAC Group 4 (Legacy O)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5484
6 BrazilBrazil 2015 Rice cyhalofop-butyl, penoxsulam, and quinclorac (MOA in monocots) 5 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase ( HRAC Group 1 (Legacy A)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
Inhibition of Cellulose Synthesis ( HRAC Group 29 (Legacy L)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass15069
7 BrazilBrazil 2018 Rice florpyrauxifen, penoxsulam, and quinclorac (MOA in monocots) 5 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
Inhibition of Cellulose Synthesis ( HRAC Group 29 (Legacy L)
Auxin Mimics ( HRAC Group 4 (Legacy O)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass26265
8 BrazilBrazil 2020 Soybean glyphosate 5 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase ( HRAC Group 9 (Legacy G)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass19211
9 BulgariaBulgaria 1992 Orchards pendimethalin 6 Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly ( HRAC Group 3 (Legacy K1)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass544
10 Canada (Ontario) CanadaOntario1981 Corn (maize), and Cropland atrazine 7 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass62
11 ChinaChina 1993 Rice butachlor 9 Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors ( HRAC Group 15 (Legacy K3 N)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass69
12 ChinaChina 1993 Rice thiobencarb/benthiocarb 9 Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors ( HRAC Group 15 (Legacy K3 N)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass379
13 ChinaChina 2000 Rice quinclorac 9 Auxin Mimics ( HRAC Group 4 (Legacy O)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5538
14 ChinaChina 2010 Rice, and Soybean fenoxaprop-ethyl, and quizalofop-ethyl 9 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase ( HRAC Group 1 (Legacy A)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5474
15 ChinaChina 2011 Rice penoxsulam 9 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5653
16 Czech RepublicCzech Republic 1994 Corn (maize) atrazine 12 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5052
17 EgyptEgypt 2009 Rice fenoxaprop-ethyl 15 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase ( HRAC Group 1 (Legacy A)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass7897
18 FranceFrance 1982 Corn (maize) atrazine 17 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass462
19 FranceFrance 2013 Corn (maize), and Rice foramsulfuron, and penoxsulam 17 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass9934
20 GermanyGermany 2012 Corn (maize) nicosulfuron 18 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5738
21 GreeceGreece 1986 Rice propanil 19 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass89
22 IndiaIndia 2017 Rice bispyribac-sodium 21 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass25264
23 ItalyItaly 2000 Rice propanil 24 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5114
24 ItalyItaly 2005 Corn (maize), and Rice azimsulfuron, bispyribac-sodium, imazamox, nicosulfuron, and penoxsulam 24 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5356
25 ItalyItaly 2009 Rice azimsulfuron, bispyribac-sodium, cyhalofop-butyl, imazamox, penoxsulam, and profoxydim 24 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase ( HRAC Group 1 (Legacy A)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5639
26 ItalyItaly 2011 Rice cyhalofop-butyl, and profoxydim 24 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase ( HRAC Group 1 (Legacy A)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass8904
27 JapanJapan 2010 Rice cyhalofop-butyl 25 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase ( HRAC Group 1 (Legacy A)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass7769
28 PhilippinesPhilippines 2005 Rice butachlor, and propanil 32 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors ( HRAC Group 15 (Legacy K3 N)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5272
29 PolandPoland 1995 Orchards atrazine 33 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass374
30 PortugalPortugal 2015 Rice penoxsulam 34 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass28264
31 PortugalPortugal 2018 Corn (maize), Grapes, and Pomegranate glyphosate 34 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase ( HRAC Group 9 (Legacy G)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass28265
32 South KoreaSouth Korea 2008 Rice azimsulfuron, bensulfuron-methyl, bispyribac-sodium, cyhalofop-butyl, fenoxaprop-ethyl, flucetosulfuron, halosulfuron-methyl, imazosulfuron, metamifop, pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, pyribenzoxim, and pyriminobac-methyl 27 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase ( HRAC Group 1 (Legacy A)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5525
33 SpainSpain 1992 Corn (maize) atrazine 38 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass171
34 SpainSpain 2015 Corn (maize) nicosulfuron 38 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass11016
35 Sri LankaSri Lanka 1997 Rice propanil 39 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass535
36 ThailandThailand 1998 Rice butachlor, and propanil 47 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors ( HRAC Group 15 (Legacy K3 N)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass1185
37 ThailandThailand 2001 Rice cyhalofop-butyl, fenoxaprop-ethyl, and quizalofop-ethyl 47 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase ( HRAC Group 1 (Legacy A)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5113
38 ThailandThailand 2021 Rice quinclorac (MOA in monocots) 47 Inhibition of Cellulose Synthesis ( HRAC Group 29 (Legacy L)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass27275
39 TurkeyTurkey 2009 Rice bispyribac-sodium, cyhalofop-butyl, and penoxsulam 71 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase ( HRAC Group 1 (Legacy A)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5531
40 UkraineUkraine 2017 Rice imazamox, imazapyr, nicosulfuron, and penoxsulam 230 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass17113
41 United States (Maryland) United StatesMaryland1978 Corn (maize), and Cropland atrazine, cyanazine, and simazine 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass426
42 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas1990 Cropland, and Rice propanil 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass399
43 United States (Texas) United StatesTexas1991 Rice propanil 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass271
44 United States (Missouri) United StatesMissouri1994 Rice propanil 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass1082
45 United States (Louisiana) United StatesLouisiana1995 Rice propanil 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass1046
46 United States (Louisiana) United StatesLouisiana1998 Rice quinclorac 45 Auxin Mimics ( HRAC Group 4 (Legacy O)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass1180
47 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas1999 Rice propanil, and quinclorac 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
Auxin Mimics ( HRAC Group 4 (Legacy O)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass1188
48 United States (California) United StatesCalifornia2000 Rice cyhalofop-butyl, fenoxaprop-ethyl, molinate, and thiobencarb/benthiocarb 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase ( HRAC Group 1 (Legacy A)
Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors ( HRAC Group 15 (Legacy K3 N)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5136
49 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas2008 Rice clomazone 45 Inhibition of Deoxy-D-Xylulose Phosphate Synthase ( HRAC Group 13 (Legacy F4)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5563
50 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi2011 Rice fenoxaprop-ethyl, imazamox, imazethapyr, propanil, and quinclorac (MOA in monocots) 45 Multiple Resistance: 4 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase ( HRAC Group 1 (Legacy A)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders ( HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
Inhibition of Cellulose Synthesis ( HRAC Group 29 (Legacy L)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass8901
51 United States (Louisiana) United StatesLouisiana2013 Rice imazethapyr 45 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass7786
52 UruguayUruguay 2013 Rice quinclorac 73 Auxin Mimics ( HRAC Group 4 (Legacy O)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass7812
53 UruguayUruguay 2013 Rice imazapic, and imazapyr 73 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass7813
54 Viet NamViet Nam 2017 Rice bispyribac-sodium, penoxsulam, and quinclorac (MOA in monocots) 74 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
Inhibition of Cellulose Synthesis ( HRAC Group 29 (Legacy L)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass23242
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