International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

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(Buglossoides arvensis (=Lithospermum arvense))

Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)

China, Shandong
Corn Gromwell (Buglossoides arvensis (=Lithospermum arvense)) is a dicot weed in the Boraginaceae family.  In China this weed first evolved resistance to Group 2 (Legacy B) herbicides in 2009 and infests Winter wheat.   Group 2 (Legacy B) herbicides are known as Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to tribenuron-methyl and they may be cross-resistant to other Group 2 (Legacy B) herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Apr 08, 2012 )

Common NameCorn Gromwell
SpeciesBuglossoides arvensis (=Lithospermum arvense)
GroupInhibition of Acetolactate Synthase HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
LocationChina, Shandong
Situation(s)Winter wheat
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Jinxin Wang 
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Confirmation Tests

trials comparing a known susceptible Corn Gromwell biotype with this Corn Gromwell biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.

Genetic studies on HRAC Group 2 resistant Corn Gromwell have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group 2 (Legacy B) resistant Corn Gromwell from China please update the database.
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Shandong Agricultural University
College Of Plant Protection
Daizong Road 61#
Tai'an, 271018, Shandong
Email Jinxin Wang


The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in China have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Jinxin Wang for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Corn Gromwell Globally
(Buglossoides arvensis (=Lithospermum arvense))
Herbicide Resistant Corn Gromwell Globally
(Buglossoides arvensis (=Lithospermum arvense))
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Herbicide Resistant Corn Gromwell Globally
(Buglossoides arvensis (=Lithospermum arvense))
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 ChinaChina 2009 Winter wheat tribenuron-methyl 9 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
274Buglossoides arvensis (=Lithospermum arvense)Corn Gromwell5612
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