International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
(Fumaria densiflora)

Inhibition of Microtubule AssemblyHRAC Group 3 (Legacy K1)

Australia, New South Wales
Dense-flowered Fumitory (Fumaria densiflora) is a dicot weed in the Fumariaceae family.  In New South Wales this weed first evolved resistance to Group 3 (Legacy K1) herbicides in 1999 and infests Canola, and Cereals.   Group 3 (Legacy K1) herbicides are known as Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly (Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly ).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to trifluralin and they may be cross-resistant to other Group 3 (Legacy K1) herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Jun 06, 2000 )

Common NameDense-flowered Fumitory
SpeciesFumaria densiflora
GroupInhibition of Microtubule Assembly HRAC Group 3 (Legacy K1)
LocationAustralia, New South Wales
Situation(s)Canola, and Cereals
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Gertraud Norton 
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Gertraud Norton
One area is located near Owen, South Australia, and the other one near Junee, New South Wales.

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Gertraud Norton
Fumaria densiflora is a weed commonly occurring in crops in southern New South Wales and South Australia. Its control in crops like conventional canola and legumes can be difficult once it has emerged. In 1999, two morphlogically and phenologically different biotypes were identified as being resistant to trifluralin.They evolved in similar situations with frequent applications of trifluralin during the past 10 to 15 years. Repeat trials in 2000 confirmed the relative difference between susceptible and resistant biotypes. However,an overall greater efficacy of trifluralin and pendimethalin could be observed in that year. It is suspected that this was due to higher average temperatures during the initial trial period which might have increased the effectiveness of the herbicides while at the same time being too high for optimum germination of this fumitory species. A number of other accessions which were tested in 1999 were clearly also showing a tendency for reduced susceptibility in comparison with the susceptible control.

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Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse trials comparing a known susceptible Dense-flowered Fumitory biotype with this Dense-flowered Fumitory biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.

Genetic studies on HRAC Group 3 resistant Dense-flowered Fumitory have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group 3 (Legacy K1) resistant Dense-flowered Fumitory from New South Wales please update the database.
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Charles Sturt University
Faculty Of Science And Agriculture
Research& Development
14310 Scottslawn Rd,
Wagga Wagga, 2678, New South Wales
Email Gertraud Norton


The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in New South Wales have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Gertraud Norton for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Dense-flowered Fumitory Globally
(Fumaria densiflora)
Herbicide Resistant Dense-flowered Fumitory Globally
(Fumaria densiflora)
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Herbicide Resistant Dense-flowered Fumitory Globally
(Fumaria densiflora)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 1999 Canola, and Cereals trifluralin 1 Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly ( HRAC Group 3 (Legacy K1)
191Fumaria densifloraDense-flowered Fumitory1178
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